B.C.'s Energy College

POPR 202 - Third Class Power Engineering

Course Details
Course Code:
POPR 202

Hours:
Total Hours: 300

Total Weeks:
15

Pre-Requisites:
Must have completed POPR 201 AR - Fourth Class Power Engineering. Must be enrolled as a fulltime student in the Power Engineering & Gas Processing program.

Course Content:
THIRD CLASS PAPER 1

APPLIED MATHEMATICS:

Enriched math, logarithms, elementary algebra and trigonometry, simple equations, mensuration.

APPLIED MECHANICS:
(a) Application of forces; Newton's Laws of Motion; vector diagrams.
(b) Forces due to friction.
(c) Velocity and acceleration.
(d) Work, power and energy.
(e) Moments of force and simple machines.
(f) Relationships between load, stress and strain; yield point and ultimate strength.
(g) Factor of safety and safe working stress.
(h) Bending of beams; shearing forces and bending moments.
(i) Density and specific gravity.

THERMODYNAMICS:
(a) Measurement of temperature in Fahrenheit, Rankine, Celsius, and Kelvin scales.
(b) Expansion of solids; linear, surface and volumetric.
(c) Expansion of liquids and gases.
(d) Quantity of heat; specific heat, S.I. (metric) quantities.
(e) Change of state: sensible and latent heat; heat content in mixtures of water, ice and steam; saturated and superheated steam.
(f) Thermodynamics of steam: steam tables; Mollier and temperature-enthalpy charts; critical temperature and pressure; dryness fraction; equivalent evaporation, factor of evaporation.
(g) Methods of heat transfer; conduction, convection, radiation.
(h) Work and heat: mechanical equivalent of heat; laws of thermodynamics; Boyle's and Charles' laws of perfect gases, general gas laws, characteristic constant of a gas.
(i) Expansion and compression of gases: isothermal, adiabatic; pressure-volume diagrams; indicated horsepower; thermal efficiency.
(j) Mechanics of fluids

APPLIED SCIENCE:
(a) Basic Chemistry:
(i) Elements, compounds and mixtures; molecules and atoms.
(ii) Chemical balancing equations, chemical formulae.
(iii) Structure of the atom, atomic number, atomic weight, formula weights, the mol.
(iv) Acids, bases, salts.
(v) Carbon and carbon compounds.
(vi) Water treatment

(b) Engineering Materials:
(i) Mechanical properties.
(ii) Materials used in construction; selection of materials.
(iii) Alloying elements, case hardening.
(iv) Nonferrous metals.

(c) Mechanical Drawing:
(i) Geometrical construction of plane figures.
(ii) Projecting, dimensioning and sectioning simple figures.
(iii) Types of screw threads and securing keys.

THIRD CLASS PAPER 2

INDUSTRIAL LEGISLATION:

(a) A thorough knowledge of The Power Engineers and Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Act and a working knowledge of the Regulations under the Act.

(b) General background knowledge of the reasons for adopting the present Regulations.

CODES:

A.S.M.E. Section I - Power Boilers
A.S.M.E. Section IV - Heating Boilers
A.S.M.E. Section VII - Recommended Rules for Care of Power Boilers
A.S.M.E. Section VI - Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers.
C.S.A. Standard B-51 - Code for Construction and Inspection of Boilers and Pressure Vessels.
C.S.A. Standard B-52 - Mechanical Refrigeration Code.

BOILER CALCULATIONS, A.S.M.E. CODE, SECTION I:

Values to be computed for the following boiler pressure parts.

(a) Piping, drums, headers and dished heads; minimum required plate thickness, maximum allowable working pressure, maximum allowable stress value, joint efficiency.

(b) Unstayed flat heads and covers; minimum required plate thickness, maximum allowable working pressure, maximum allowable stress value, factor C.

(c) Stayed surfaces: minimum required plate thickness, maximum allowable working pressure, maximum pitch of stays, factor C.

(d) Plain circular furnaces and circular flues; minimum required thickness of flue or furnace walls, maximum allowable working pressure.

(e) Corrugated furnaces; minimum required thickness of furnace wall maximum allowable working pressure, factor C.

FUELS AND COMBUSTION:
(a) Combustion:
(i) Essentials for economic boiler operation.
(ii) Classification of fuels; coals, fuel oil, natural gas.
(iii) Fuel analysis; proximate, ultimate, fuel heat value.
(iv) Combustion chemistry; combustion balancing equations, air and excess air, products.
(v) Flue gas analysis; Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen recorders and application of results; smoke prevention.

PIPING:
(a) Materials for and identification of piping and fittings.
(b) Strength of piping; commercial pipe sizes; high temperature effects on piping.
(c) Methods of connecting pipe: screwed, flanged and welded connection; gasket materials and applications.
(d) Piping expansion: expansion bends; slip and corrugated expansion joints.
(e) Piping supports: strap, roller and constant support hanger; roller stands; anchors.
(f) Piping drainage: baffle and centrifugal steam separators; mechanical, thermostatic and thermodynamic steam traps; strainers, causes and prevention of water hammer.
(g) Pipe insulation; material types and characteristics; methods of installation.
(h) General layout of piping arrangements in power plants.

ELECTROTECHNOLOGY:
(a) Direct Current Theory:
(i) Primary and secondary batteries; internal resistance; specific gravity; battery capacity; construction and maintenance.
(ii) Magnetism: magnets and magnetic materials: molecular theory of magnetism; magnetic field; force on conductor; magnetomotive force.
(iii) Electromagnetic induction: induced EMF; Faraday's and Lenz's Laws of Induction; Fleming's right-hand rule; self-induction in a coil; mutual induction.

(b) Direct Current Machines:
(i) Generators: principle of operation; construction; multi-coil armatures; methods of field excitation; magnetization curve; commutation; speed and voltage control; efficiency and losses; types, shunt, series and compound.
(ii) Motors: principle of operation; torque development and measurement; armature reaction; interpoles; speed control; methods of starting; types, shunt, series and compound; protection devices.

(c) Alternating Current Theory:
(i) Generation of an alternating EMF; sinusoidal wave forms; phase relationships.
(ii) Resistance in an A.C. circuit; inductive and capacitive reactance, impedance; power and power factor; single phase circuits.

(d) Alternating Current Machines:
(i) Alternator: principle of operation; construction; voltage regulation; synchronizing; parallel operation; taking off the line; switchboard arrangement.
(ii) Motors: principle of operation of induction and synchronous motors; construction; speed and slip; methods of starting induction motors.
(iii) Transformers: Theory of operation; types of construction; losses and efficiency; methods of cooling.

(e) The Electron Theory:
(i) Flow of electricity.
(ii) Measurement of current, voltage and resistance.
(iii) Voltmeter and ammeter connections.
(iv) Circuit-protective and switching equipment; fuses, safety switches; circuit breaker; grounding; lightning arresters.

ELECTRICAL CALCULATIONS:

(a) Potential difference; current; Ohm's Law.
(b) Series and Parallel circuits; Kirchhoff's Laws, the Wheatstone Bridge.
(c) Effect of temperature on resistance; temperature coefficient of resistance.
(d) Work, energy, power: Joule, coulomb, watt, kilowatt-hour.
(e) Relationship between electrical, mechanical and heat units.
(f) Heating effect of the electric current.
(g) Electrical conductors: circular and square mil; wire gauge.
(h) Sinusoidal wave forms: Maximum, average and root mean square values; frequency; phase.
(i) A.C. circuits: resistive, inductive and capacitive; inductive reactance, capacitive reactance, impedance; power factor.
(j) A.C. machines: relationship between number of poles, frequency and speed.
(k) Step up and step down transformers.

CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION:
(a) Applications of pneumatic, electric and electronic operated automatic control systems.
(b) Pressure measuring devices; bourdon tube, manometer, diaphragm, bellows.
(c) Temperature measuring instruments: glass-stem, remote indicating bulb, and bimetallic thermometers; thermoelectric and optical pyrometers.
(d) Flow measurement:

(i) Flowmeters; variable area, nutating disc, rotary, orifice, venturi.
(ii) Indicating mechanisms; manometer, Ledoux bell, float manometer, bellows, force balance unit, the integrator.
(e) Level measuring instruments: float cage units, float manometer.

FIRE PREVENTION AND PLANT SAFETY:
(a) General Plant Safety:
(i) Safety Committee.
(ii) Types of accidents; safety measures; safe storage of flammable materials; housekeeping.
(iii) Safety equipment; eye, ear, head and respiratory protection requirements.
(iv) Precautions taken before entering pressure vessels or boilers for cleaning or repairs.
(v) Knowledge of the harmful gases; effects and identification.

(b) Fire Protection:
(i) Classes of fires.
(ii) Ways to extinguish fires; steps taken in the event of fire.
(iii) Construction and operation of fire fighting equipment.

(c) First Aid:
(i) Treatment for electric shock
(ii) Artificial respiration; Holger-Neilson methods, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

TYPES AND ARRANGEMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS:

(a) Terminologies and definitions common to the petroleum and gas industries.
(b) Gas Processing Plants:
(i) Composition, structure and properties of the hydrocarbons.
(ii) Safety in gas plants, emergency systems.
(iii) Gas processing; systems and equipment; separation, sweetening, dehydration, fractionation, condensate stabilization, sulphur recovery, product treating and storage.

(c) Terminologies and definitions common to the pulp and paper mills.
(d) Pulp and paper mills: mechanical and chemical manufacturing processes; flow diagrams.

Learning Outcomes:
To provide students with the background necessary to obtain Part A of BC Boilers Branch Third Class Power Engineer's Certificate.

Grading System:
Percentage

Passing Grade:
70

Grading Weight:
Final Exam: 60 %
Assignments: 40 %

Other Programs:
Power Engineering & Gas Processing Program