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CHEM 040 - Advanced Chemistry

This course satisfies the requirements for a general or academic science. It meets entrance requirements for further academic or technical training. The advanced level covers the fundamental concepts and topics in chemistry with a qualitative approach to lab work.

 

Hours: 120 (Lecture Hours: 4; Laboratory Hours: 2)

 

Total Weeks: 20

 

Prerequisites:

Math 030 Intermediate Mathematics
Science 030 Intermediate Science or equivalent
OR permission of the instructor

 

Co-requisites:
Math 040 Advanced Algebraic Mathematics is recommended

 

Course Content:
Core Topics
Safety
- Safety and protective equipment available in the laboratory
- Procedures or techniques for dealing with particular hazards and hazardous materials
Measurement
- Concepts of precision and accuracy and how they differ
- Calculations using scientific notation
- Conversions within the SI system
Properties of Substance
- Classification of substances as organic or inorganic
- Phases of matter
- Chemical or physical properties of substances
- Dalton's Atomic Theory and the Law of Constant Composition
Periodic Trends
- Using the periodic table to determine atomic composition of isotopes
- Using the periodic table to predict electron arrangement of chemical families in order to predict trends in ion charge, reactivity, ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic radii, and ionic radii
Atomic Structure
- Historical development of atomic theory
- Bohr and Wave Mechanical model of the atom and evidence for these models including absorption and emission spectra and their use in modern technology
Mole Concept
- Definition and significance
- Calculating molar and formula mass, mole to mass conversions, and percent composition by mass of compounds
Bonding
- Covalent and ionic bonding
- Constructing the formulas of compounds
- Using electronegativity to predict bond type
- Lewis Structures and polarity
Nomenclature
- Writing names for compounds given the formulae and formulae for compounds given the names, for:
- Organic compounds and functioning groups
- Covalent compounds
- Ionic compounds
- Compounds containing polyatomic ions
- Compounds containing transition metals
- Acids
Chemical Reactions
- Balancing equations
- Classifying and predicting single and double replacement reactions, combustion reactions, and acid-base neutralizations
- Classifying synthesis, decomposition, exothermic and endothermic reactions
- Performing stoichiometric calculations including mass-to-mass, limiting reagent, and percent yield
Solutions
- Predicting solubility and conductivity of polar and non-polar compounds
- Arrhenius acids and bases
- Relating the pH scale to acids and bases
- Performing calculations involving dilutions
- Performing stoichiometric calculations involving solutions including titrations

Options
Options may include additional organic chemistry.

Laboratories
A minimum of eight (8) labs are to be completed, covering the core concepts.

 

Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this course, learners will be able to:
Module 1- The Basics
Lab Safety

- Check lab supplies in the course package
- List safety precautions taken in storing lab items
- Identify symbols used on hazardous products
- Describe WHMIS and HHPS
- Name hazardous products in the home and outbuildings
- Describe first aid treatment for the hazardous products
- Demonstrate when and how to use specific pieces of equipment
Measurement
- Describe standards used in measurements
- Define accuracy, density, heat, precision, significant figure, uncertain figure
- Perform SI unit conversions
- Measure mass, volume (of solution), and temperature
- Investigate the density of solids
- Measure heat gain and heat loss in a calorimeter
- Describe the imprecise nature of measurements
- Describe the uncertainty in a measurement
- Determine the number of significant figures in a measured quantity
- Round off calculated results to the correct number of significant figures
- Compare the calculated value to the true or accepted value
- Communicate results and data in an organized form
Chemistry
- Describe chemistry as the study of elements and compounds, the atomic structure, and the physical and chemical properties
- Identify chemistry as a pathway to a variety of career choices
- Identify seven branches of chemistry
Scientific Method
- Describe Scientific Method as a three-part process
- List three steps of observation, hypothesis, and testing in the Scientific Method
- Describe natural law and theory as tested hypotheses
- Name three scientific laws
Model 2: – Earth (Part I)
Matter
- Define matter
- Classify pure substances and mixtures
- Contrast pure substances with mixtures
- Classify homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
- Define and give examples of solutions
- Define and give examples of suspensions
- Identify gel, aerosol, sol, and emulsion as colloidal dispersions
Physical Properties
- Define physical properties
- Describe three states of matter in terms of kinetic molecular theory
- Define melting point, boiling point, solubility, miscibility, and magnetism
- Test solubility of some compounds in water
- Test miscibility of oil in water
- List some additional physical properties, such as hardness, conductance of electricity and heat, density, odour, and taste
- Observe and describe physical properties of a few metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and lead
- Identify physical properties of a) salt, b) sand, and c) a mixture of salt and sand
- Describe distillation
- Describe filtration
- Describe principals involved in the separation of mixtures
- Devise and perform separation of salt from sand in a mixture
- Perform separation of primary colors in food dye by paper chromatography
Chemical Properties
- Describe chemical properties
- Describe chemical tests
- Identify flame test, spot test, and acid test
- Describe the difference between chemical changes and physical changes
- Identify whether a change is physical or chemical
- Perform, observe and describe the reaction of sodium carbonate solution with iron II sulphate solution
- Perform, observe and describe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with acetic acid
Periodic Table
- Define elements
- Fill elements in a blank Periodic Table and classify them into metals, metalloids, and non-metals
- Identify some common elements in the earth and in the human body
- Write chemical symbols for elements
- Module 3: - Earth (Part II)
Atoms and Isotopes
- Describe early models of the atom
- Describe modern atomic theory
- Describe nucleus, neutrons, protons, and electrons of an element
- Use a table to identify the atomic number for an element
- Calculate the number of neutrons, protons and electrons in an atom or ion
- Define isotopes in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons
- Calculate the number of neutrons, protons, and electrons, given the mass number of an isotope
- Write electron configurations for the first twenty elements
- Define valence electrons, ground state, and excited state
- Draw the Bohr diagram for the first twenty elements
Electron Configuration
- Identify families of elements
- Identify Groups 1 – 2 and 13 –18 as representative elements
- Describe the similarities and periodic trends among elements in terms of
electronegativity, atomic radius, ionization energy, valence electrons and ion charge
- Identify the following families of elements: the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, the halogens, and the noble gases
- Describe some properties of the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble bases
- Relate chemical properties to the electron configuration of an element
- Relate stability of noble gases to electron arrangement within the atom
- Define ion, cation, anion
- Predict electron gain or electron loss in forming stable octet of electrons
- Identify the member of each period having
(a) the largest atomic volume
(b) the smallest atomic volume
- Explain the change in atomic size within a period
- Identify the member of each period havin
(a) the lowest ionization energy
(b) the highest ionization energy
Module 4 – Fire (Part I)
Chemical Bonds
- Demonstrate a knowledge of the electronic nature of chemical bonding
- Name two types of chemical bonding: ionic and covalent
- Define ionic bonds
- Define covalent bonds
- Compare and contrast ionic bonds with covalent bonds
Compounds
- Define ionic compounds
- Define crystals
- Write chemical formulae for ions given a table of common ions
- Write the chemical formula given the name of ionic compound, and vice versa
- Name eight ionic compounds in home products
- Write the molecular formula given the name of covalent compound, and vice versa
- Name eight covalent compounds in home products
- Determine the polarity of covalent bonds by using a chart of electronegativities
Lewis Structures
- Draw Lewis structural formulae of simple ionic compounds
- Draw Lewis structural formulae of covalent compounds
- Construct models of molecules using the Lewis structure as a guide
Molecular shapes
- Define symmetric and asymmetric molecular structures
- Determine polar and non-polar molecules on the basis of molecular structure and polarity of bonds
- Describe linear, bent, trigonal pyramidal, and tetrahedral molecules
- Predict and draw the shape of a molecule given the formula
Module 5 – Fire (Part II)
Introduction to Mole Concept
- Identify the mole as the unit for counting atoms, molecules and ions
- Relate Avogadro’s number to 1 mole of “particles”
- Review scientific notations
- Calculate the number of moles from the number of molecules and atoms, and vice versa
Molar Mass
- Define molar mass of an element
- Define molar mass of a compound
- Calculate the molar mass of elements and compounds
- Solve problems involving the formula: mass = molar mass x number of moles
Percent Composition
- Define Law of Definite Composition
- Define percent composition as the percentage by mass of an element in a compound
- Calculate the percent composition of each element in a compound
Chemical Reactions
- Define precipitate, catalyst, reactants, products
- Identify observable changes in chemical reactions such as permanent color change, a gas is produced, or a precipitate is formed
- Identify factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, such as heat, solvent, and catalyst
- Classify chemical reactions into the following types:
 --Synthesis
 --Decomposition
 --Single replacement
 --Double replacement
 --Organic combustion
- Use Activity Series Table to predict single replacement reaction
- Use Table of Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water to predict formation of a precipitate in a reaction
- Identify endothermic and exothermic reactions
- Define photosynthesis as an endothermic reaction which requires light energy and a green pigment
- Define Law of Conservation of atoms
- Define chemical equations, coefficients, subscripts and postscripts
- Predict products of simple reactions
- Balance chemical equations
- Perform experiments on:
 --Rusting of iron
 --Heating sodium bicarbonate
 --Decomposing hydrogen peroxide
 --Single replacement reactions
 --Double replacement reactions
Stoichiometric Calculations
Relate the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation to the relative number of moles of reactants and products
Determine the amount of reactant and / or product measured in moles or grams that are involved in a chemical reaction
Module 6 - Water
Introduction to water
- Identify some unique properties of water such as hydrogen bond, “universal solvent," and maximum density at 4º C
- Describe the use of water in the treatment of sewage; and in making non polar products soluble, e.g. latex paint, and soluble chitin
used in sutures
- Define melting point, boiling point of water
- Define and give examples of hydrates
- Describe high polarity of water due to its bent and asymmetric molecular shape
- Describe hydrogen bonding between water molecules
- Identify the effects of hydrogen bonding on the relatively high boiling point and heat of vaporization of water
- Investigate the relative density of cold water, warm water and ice
Solutions
- Define solvent, solute, solution, and aqueous solution
- Search for five aqueous solutions in the home, and name the use of each
- Compare the solubility of compounds in water in terms of molecular polarities
- Dissolve various compounds and list them in increasing order of solubility
- Investigate the miscibility of food coloring liquid and water
Water Pollution
Define pollution
- Name two major sources of water pollution in the twentieth century
- List three sources of water pollution around the home, developing a plan that students will follow to reduce pollution
- Investigate and compare the amount of residue in distilled water and tap water
- Define molarity, and parts per million (ppm)
- Calculate the concentration of a solution in moles / L, g /L and ppm
- Calculate the mass of solute dissolved in a given volume of solution
- Name sources of toxic heavy metals that pollute drinking water
- Describe Safe Drinking Water Act
Acids, Bases and Salts
- Define acids, binary acid, oxyacids, organic acids
- Name some sources of acid rain
- Define bases, alkaline and polyatomic ions
- Name some properties of acids and bases
- Name products of an acid and a base reaction
- Classify compounds as an acid, a base, or a salt
- Relate pH measurements to strong acid, weak acid, weak base and strong base
- Name compounds used to increase and decrease the soil pH
- Describe the function of a buffer
- Measure, record and compare pH values for some acids and bases
- Investigate, record and compare the pH of fruits, vegetables and house hold chemicals
- Investigate and observe changes in pH values in a neutralization reaction
Module 7 – Air
Introduction
- Define atmosphere
- Describe two layers of atmosphere: - troposphere and stratosphere
- Identify physical properties of gases
- Define diffusion, contraction, expansion, pressure and standard pressure
Gas Laws
- Describe:
 --Boyle's Law, PV = k
 --Charles' Law, V / T = k
 --Gay-Lussac's Law, P / T = k
 --The Combined Gas Laws, PV / T = k
 --Avogadro's Principle on molar volume of a gas at STP
- Apply gas laws to solve numerical problems
“The Precious Envelope” - Earth’s Atmosphere
- Describe the composition of gases in the atmosphere
- Describe the function of an “invisible shield”
- Describe “fixing of nitrogen”, nitrogen cycle and uses of nitrogen
- Describe the importance of ozone layer in the upper atmosphere
- Describe ozone depletion
- Identify three industrial and / or domestic products containing halo-hydrocarbons and suggest alternatives to halo-hydrocarbon products
- Describe oxygen cycle and uses of oxygen
- Describe carbon dioxide cycle and uses of carbon dioxide
- Describe greenhouse effect and global warming
Carbon Dioxide
Prepare and collect carbon dioxide by:
(a)Burning a candle in an inverted beaker
(b)Heating sodium bicarbonate
(c)Reacting calcium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate with acetic acid
Test for the presence of carbon dioxide:
(a)Carbon dioxide extinguishes a burning split
(b)Carbon dioxide turns lime water cloudy
- Balance equations for reactions involving carbonates and acids
- Balance equations for different types of reactions including subscripts for the
state of a substance
- Investigate the presence of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air from lungs
Module 8 – Carbon
- Introduction
- Define allotropes
- Name four allotropes of carbon
- Identify unique properties of carbon:
 --Carbon atoms have four valence electrons for bonding
 --Carbon atoms form four covalent bonds with other atoms
 --Carbon atoms form single, double or triple bonds
 --Carbon atoms form chains in straight-line, in branched-pattern or in "circular" pattern
- Name first synthetic organic compound
- Contrast organic compounds with inorganic compounds
Hydrocarbons
- Define hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cyclic-, and aromatic hydrocarbons
- Define resonance bonding
- Write general formulae for alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
- Classify hydrocarbons as saturated or unsaturated
- Name and draw alkanes, alkenes and alkynes up to C10
- Draw and name structural isomers of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
- Recognize restricted rotation about double-bonded carbons in alkenes
- Identify geometric isomers of alkenes
Functional Groups
- Define the functional group.
- Identify functional groups in alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, halo-hydrocarbon, halocarbon, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides
- Name and draw structures of functional groups
Polymerization
- Define polymerization, monomers, polymers and petrochemical industry
- Identify two natural polymers
- Name five common products made from polymer
- Identify petrochemical industry as a major source of industrial air pollution
- Suggest ways to reduce industrial pollutions

Knowledge:
An understanding of the fundamentals of Chemistry is vital to understanding the applications in health, the environment and industry.

 

Grading System: Letters

 

Passing Grade:  D (50%)

 

Percentage of Individual Work: 90

 

Percentage of Group Work: 10

 

Textbooks: 
Textbooks are subject to change. Please contact the bookstore at your local campus for current book lists.

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