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CHEM 040 - Advanced Chemistry
This course satisfies the requirements for a general or academic science. It meets entrance requirements for further academic or technical training. The advanced level covers the fundamental concepts and topics in chemistry with a qualitative approach to lab work.

Hours:
  • Total Hours: 120
  • Lecture Hours: 80
  • Laboratory Hours: 40
Total Weeks:  20

Prerequisites:
  • Math 030 Intermediate Mathematics
  • Science 030 Intermediate Science or equivalent, or permission of the instructor
  • Math 040 Advanced Algebraic Mathematics is recommended

Course Content:
Core Topics

Safety
- Safety and protective equipment available in the laboratory
- Procedures or techniques for dealing with particular hazards and hazardous materials

Measurement
- Concepts of precision and accuracy and how they differ
- Calculations using scientific notation
- Conversions within the SI system

Properties of Substance
- Classification of substances as organic or inorganic
- Phases of matter
- Chemical or physical properties of substances
- Dalton's Atomic Theory and the Law of Constant Composition

Periodic Trends
- Using the periodic table to determine atomic composition of isotopes
- Using the periodic table to predict electron arrangement of chemical families in order to predict trends in ion charge, reactivity, ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic radii, and ionic radii

Atomic Structure
- Historical development of atomic theory
- Bohr and Wave Mechanical model of the atom and evidence for these models including absorption and emission spectra and their use in modern technology

Mole Concept
- Definition and significance
- Calculating molar and formula mass, mole to mass conversions, and percent composition by mass of compounds

Bonding
- Covalent and ionic bonding
- Constructing the formulas of compounds
- Using electronegativity to predict bond type
- Lewis Structures and polarity

Nomenclature
- Writing names for compounds given the formulae and formulae for compounds given the names, for:
- Organic compounds and functioning groups
- Covalent compounds
- Ionic compounds
- Compounds containing polyatomic ions
- Compounds containing transition metals
- Acids

Chemical Reactions
- Balancing equations
- Classifying and predicting single and double replacement reactions, combustion reactions, and acid-base neutralizations
- Classifying synthesis, decomposition, exothermic and endothermic reactions
- Performing stoichiometric calculations including mass-to-mass, limiting reagent, and percent yield

Solutions
- Predicting solubility and conductivity of polar and non-polar compounds
- Arrhenius acids and bases
- Relating the pH scale to acids and bases
- Performing calculations involving dilutions
- Performing stoichiometric calculations involving solutions including titrations

Options
Options may include additional organic chemistry.

Laboratories
A minimum of eight (8) labs are to be completed, covering the core concepts.

Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this course, learners will be able to:
Module 1- The Basics
Lab Safety
  • Check lab supplies in the course package
  • List safety precautions taken in storing lab items
  • Identify symbols used on hazardous products
  • Describe WHMIS and HHPS
  • Name hazardous products in the home and outbuildings
  • Describe first aid treatment for the hazardous products
  • Demonstrate when and how to use specific pieces of equipment
Measurement
  • Describe standards used in measurements
  • Define accuracy, density, heat, precision, significant figure, uncertain figure
  • Perform SI unit conversions
  • Measure mass, volume (of solution), and temperature
  • Investigate the density of solids
  • Measure heat gain and heat loss in a calorimeter
  • Describe the imprecise nature of measurements
  • Describe the uncertainty in a measurement
  • Determine the number of significant figures in a measured quantity
  • Round off calculated results to the correct number of significant figures
  • Compare the calculated value to the true or accepted value
  • Communicate results and data in an organized form
Chemistry
  • Describe chemistry as the study of elements and compounds, the atomic structure, and the physical and chemical properties
  • Identify chemistry as a pathway to a variety of career choices
  • Identify seven branches of chemistry
Scientific Method
  • Describe Scientific Method as a three-part process
  • List three steps of observation, hypothesis, and testing in the Scientific Method
  • Describe natural law and theory as tested hypotheses
  • Name three scientific laws
Model 2: – Earth (Part I)
Matter
  • Define matter
  • Classify pure substances and mixtures
  • Contrast pure substances with mixtures
  • Classify homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
  • Define and give examples of solutions
  • Define and give examples of suspensions
  • Identify gel, aerosol, sol, and emulsion as colloidal dispersions
Physical Properties
  • Define physical properties
  • Describe three states of matter in terms of kinetic molecular theory
  • Define melting point, boiling point, solubility, miscibility, and magnetism
  • Test solubility of some compounds in water
  • Test miscibility of oil in water
  • List some additional physical properties, such as hardness, conductance of electricity and heat, density, odour, and taste
  • Observe and describe physical properties of a few metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and lead
  • Identify physical properties of a) salt, b) sand, and c) a mixture of salt and sand
  • Describe distillation
  • Describe filtration
  • Describe principals involved in the separation of mixtures
  • Devise and perform separation of salt from sand in a mixture
  • Perform separation of primary colors in food dye by paper chromatography
Chemical Properties
  • Describe chemical properties
  • Describe chemical tests
  • Identify flame test, spot test, and acid test
  • Describe the difference between chemical changes and physical changes
  • Identify whether a change is physical or chemical
  • Perform, observe and describe the reaction of sodium carbonate solution with iron II sulphate solution
  • Perform, observe and describe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with acetic acid
Periodic Table
  • Define elements
  • Fill elements in a blank Periodic Table and classify them into metals, metalloids, and non-metals
  • Identify some common elements in the earth and in the human body
  • Write chemical symbols for elements
Module 3: - Earth (Part II)
Atoms and Isotopes
  • Describe early models of the atom
  • Describe modern atomic theory
  • Describe nucleus, neutrons, protons, and electrons of an element
  • Use a table to identify the atomic number for an element
  • Calculate the number of neutrons, protons and electrons in an atom or ion
  • Define isotopes in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons
  • Calculate the number of neutrons, protons, and electrons, given the mass number of an isotope
  • Write electron configurations for the first twenty elements
  • Define valence electrons, ground state, and excited state
  • Draw the Bohr diagram for the first twenty elements
Electron Configuration
  • Identify families of elements
  • Identify Groups 1 – 2 and 13 –18 as representative elements
  • Describe the similarities and periodic trends among elements in terms of
  • electronegativity, atomic radius, ionization energy, valence electrons and ion charge
  • Identify the following families of elements: the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, the halogens, and the noble gases
  • Describe some properties of the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble bases
  • Relate chemical properties to the electron configuration of an element
  • Relate stability of noble gases to electron arrangement within the atom
  • Define ion, cation, anion
  • Predict electron gain or electron loss in forming stable octet of electrons
  • Identify the member of each period having
      • the largest atomic volume
      • the smallest atomic volume
  • Explain the change in atomic size within a period
  • Identify the member of each period having
      • the lowest ionization energy
      • the highest ionization energy
Module 4 – Fire (Part I)
Chemical Bonds
  • Demonstrate a knowledge of the electronic nature of chemical bonding
  • Name two types of chemical bonding: ionic and covalent
  • Define ionic bonds
  • Define covalent bonds
  • Compare and contrast ionic bonds with covalent bonds
Compounds
  • Define ionic compounds
  • Define crystals
  • Write chemical formulae for ions given a table of common ions
  • Write the chemical formula given the name of ionic compound, and vice versa
  • Name eight ionic compounds in home products
  • Write the molecular formula given the name of covalent compound, and vice versa
  • Name eight covalent compounds in home products
  • Determine the polarity of covalent bonds by using a chart of electronegativities
Lewis Structures
  • Draw Lewis structural formulae of simple ionic compounds
  • Draw Lewis structural formulae of covalent compounds
  • Construct models of molecules using the Lewis structure as a guide
Molecular shapes
  • Define symmetric and asymmetric molecular structures
  • Determine polar and non-polar molecules on the basis of molecular structure and polarity of bonds
  • Describe linear, bent, trigonal pyramidal, and tetrahedral molecules
  • Predict and draw the shape of a molecule given the formula
Module 5 – Fire (Part II)
Introduction to Mole Concept
  • Identify the mole as the unit for counting atoms, molecules and ions
  • Relate Avogadro’s number to 1 mole of “particles”
  • Review scientific notations
  • Calculate the number of moles from the number of molecules and atoms, and vice versa
Molar Mass
  • Define molar mass of an element
  • Define molar mass of a compound
  • Calculate the molar mass of elements and compounds
  • Solve problems involving the formula: mass = molar mass x number of moles
Percent Composition
  • Define Law of Definite Composition
  • Define percent composition as the percentage by mass of an element in a compound
  • Calculate the percent composition of each element in a compound
Chemical Reactions
  • Define precipitate, catalyst, reactants, products
  • Identify observable changes in chemical reactions such as permanent color change, a gas is produced, or a precipitate is formed
  • Identify factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions, such as heat, solvent, and catalyst
  • Classify chemical reactions into the following types:
      • Synthesis
      • Decomposition
      • Single replacement
      • Double replacement
      • Organic combustion
  • Use Activity Series Table to predict single replacement reaction
  • Use Table of Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water to predict formation of a precipitate in a reaction
  • Identify endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Define photosynthesis as an endothermic reaction which requires light energy and a green pigment
  • Define Law of Conservation of atoms
  • Define chemical equations, coefficients, subscripts and postscripts
  • Predict products of simple reactions
  • Balance chemical equations
  • Perform experiments on
      • Rusting of iron
      • Heating sodium bicarbonate
      • Decomposing hydrogen peroxide
      • Single replacement reactions
      • Double replacement reactions
Stoichiometric Calculations
  • Relate the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation to the relative number of moles of reactants and products
  • Determine the amount of reactant and / or product measured in moles or grams that are involved in a chemical reaction
Module 6 - Water
Introduction to water
  • Identify some unique properties of water such as hydrogen bond, “universal solvent," and maximum density at 4º C
  • Describe the use of water in the treatment of sewage; and in making non polar products soluble, e.g. latex paint, and soluble chitin
  • used in sutures
  • Define melting point, boiling point of water
  • Define and give examples of hydrates
  • Describe high polarity of water due to its bent and asymmetric molecular shape
  • Describe hydrogen bonding between water molecules
  • Identify the effects of hydrogen bonding on the relatively high boiling point and heat of vaporization of water
  • Investigate the relative density of cold water, warm water and ice
Solutions
  • Define solvent, solute, solution, and aqueous solution
  • Search for five aqueous solutions in the home, and name the use of each
  • Compare the solubility of compounds in water in terms of molecular polarities
  • Dissolve various compounds and list them in increasing order of solubility
  • Investigate the miscibility of food coloring liquid and water
Water Pollution
  • Define pollution
  • Name two major sources of water pollution in the twentieth century
  • List three sources of water pollution around the home, developing a plan that students will follow to reduce pollution
  • Investigate and compare the amount of residue in distilled water and tap water
  • Define molarity, and parts per million (ppm)
  • Calculate the concentration of a solution in moles / L, g /L and ppm
  • Calculate the mass of solute dissolved in a given volume of solution
  • Name sources of toxic heavy metals that pollute drinking water
  • Describe Safe Drinking Water Act
Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Define acids, binary acid, oxyacids, organic acids
  • Name some sources of acid rain
  • Define bases, alkaline and polyatomic ions
  • Name some properties of acids and bases
  • Name products of an acid and a base reaction
  • Classify compounds as an acid, a base, or a salt
  • Relate pH measurements to strong acid, weak acid, weak base and strong base
  • Name compounds used to increase and decrease the soil pH
  • Describe the function of a buffer
  • Measure, record and compare pH values for some acids and bases
  • Investigate, record and compare the pH of fruits, vegetables and house hold chemicals
  • Investigate and observe changes in pH values in a neutralization reaction
Module 7 – Air
Introduction
  • Define atmosphere
  • Describe two layers of atmosphere: - troposphere and stratosphere
  • Identify physical properties of gases
  • Define diffusion, contraction, expansion, pressure and standard pressure
Gas Laws
  • Describe: 
      • Boyle’s Law, PV = k
      • Charles’ Law, V / T = k
      • Gay-Lussac’s Law, P / T = k
      • The Combined Gas Laws, PV / T = k
      • Avogadro’s Principle on molar volume of a gas at STP
  • Apply gas laws to solve numerical problems
“The Precious Envelope” - Earth’s Atmosphere
  • Describe the composition of gases in the atmosphere
  • Describe the function of an “invisible shield”
  • Describe “fixing of nitrogen”, nitrogen cycle and uses of nitrogen
  • Describe the importance of ozone layer in the upper atmosphere
  • Describe ozone depletion
  • Identify three industrial and / or domestic products containing halo-hydrocarbons and suggest alternatives to halo-hydrocarbon products
  • Describe oxygen cycle and uses of oxygen
  • Describe carbon dioxide cycle and uses of carbon dioxide
  • Describe greenhouse effect and global warming
Carbon Dioxide
  • Prepare and collect carbon dioxide by:
      • Burning a candle in an inverted beaker
      • Heating sodium bicarbonate
      • Reacting a) calcium carbonate and b) sodium bicarbonate with acetic acid
  • Test for the presence of carbon dioxide: -
      • Carbon dioxide extinguishes a burning split
      • Carbon dioxide turns lime water cloudy
  • Balance equations for reactions involving carbonates and acids
  • Balance equations for different types of reactions including subscripts for the
  • state of a substance
  • Investigate the presence of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air from lungs
Module 8 – Carbon

Introduction

  • Define allotropes
  • Name four allotropes of carbon
  • Identify unique properties of carbon: -
      • Carbon atoms have four valence electrons for bonding
      • Carbon atoms form four covalent bonds with other atoms
      • Carbon atoms form single, double or triple bonds
      • Carbon atoms form chains in straight-line, in branched-pattern or in “circular” pattern
  • Name first synthetic organic compound
  • Contrast organic compounds with inorganic compounds
Hydrocarbons
  • Define hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cyclic-, and aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Define resonance bonding
  • Write general formulae for alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
  • Classify hydrocarbons as saturated or unsaturated
  • Name and draw alkanes, alkenes and alkynes up to C10
  • Draw and name structural isomers of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
  • Recognize restricted rotation about double-bonded carbons in alkenes
  • Identify geometric isomers of alkenes
Functional Groups
  • Define the functional group.
  • Identify functional groups in alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, halo-hydrocarbon, halocarbon, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amides
  • Name and draw structures of functional groups
Polymerization
  • Define polymerization, monomers, polymers and petrochemical industry
  • Identify two natural polymers
  • Name five common products made from polymer
  • Identify petrochemical industry as a major source of industrial air pollution
  • Suggest ways to reduce industrial pollutions
Knowledge:
An understanding of the fundamentals of Chemistry is vital to understanding the applications in health, the environment and industry.

Passing Grade:  D (50%)

Textbooks: Textbooks are subject to change. Please contact the bookstore at your local campus for current book lists.

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