This course introduces students to the normal structure and function of the human body and normal bodily changes associated with aging. Students will explore common challenges to health and healing in relation to each body system. Students will also be encouraged to explore person-centred practice as it relates to the common challenges to health and, in particular, to end-of-life care.
Hours: 115 (Lecture Hours: 115)
Co-Requisites:HCAT 111, HCAT 112, HCAT 113, HCAT 123, HCAT 124, and HCAT 125
1. Medical terminology
- word elements
2. Structure and function of the human body
- organization of the human body: cells, tissues, and organs
- major body systems
- natural changes associated with aging
3. Challenges to health and healing
- The experience of illness and disability
- Common challenges to healing
- Broad effects on the individual and family of health challenges (i.e. changes in physical health can be expected to also affect social, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual health).
4. Common disorders related to each body system (relevant examples in parenthesis):
- Integumentary (pressure ulcers, pain)
- Musculo-skeletal (falls, fractures, contractures, arthritis, osteoporosis, pain)
- Cardiovascular (hypertension, hypotension, edema, coronary artery disease, blood clots, heart failure, CVA-stroke)
- Respiratory (cyanosis, dyspnea, apnea, orthopnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilation, COPD, asthma, pneumonia, TB).
- Digestive (vomiting, diarrhea, dysphagia, lack of appetite, dehydration, constipation, obesity, hiatal hernia, diverticular disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease).
- Urinary (urinary tract infections, renal failure, hepatitis).
- Reproductive (BPH, STIs, erectile dysfunction).
- Endocrine (diabetes, hyper/hypothyroidism).
- Neurological (stroke, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, ALS, acquired brain injuries, spinal cord injuries).
- Sensory Challenges:
- Normal sensory changes of aging
- speech and language challenges (aphasia, apraxia, dysarthria)
- hearing and visual challenges
- multi-organ (cancer, AIDS)
- developmental health challenges (Down’s syndrome, autism spectrum, fetal alcohol, fragile X, PKU)
- chronic illness:
- basic definition and concepts
- implications for care
- focus on self-care
- community and consumer resources related to various health challenges
5. Applying critical thinking and problem-solving when caring for individuals experiencing common health challenges in various health care settings (residential, community, acute care):
- gathering information
- sources of information (e.g. care plan, health care team, client)
- observing changes in the client
- establishing priorities for care with consideration given to client acuity
- carrying out plan of care
- evaluating effectiveness of care
- reporting and recording
6. Nutrition and Healing
- nutrition in relation to health challenges
- cultural differences
- special diets: Modified diets, Restricted diets, Diabetic diet, High protein diet, Liquid and pureed diets
- Community resources to support clients’ dietary needs
- Hospice and palliative care-philosophy and principles of care
- The journey of dying-understanding and coming to terms with death and dying
- Caring and problem-solving as related to palliative care in facilities and in community settings.
- Legal/ethical practice and safety in palliative care.
- Quality of life issues-honoring the individual and family/rituals
- Common reactions/experiences as people approach death
- Physical, emotional, cognitive and spiritual needs and appropriate interventions
- Comfort measures for: Pain, Breathing challenges, Challenges with eating and drinking, Dehydration. Bowel function, Restlessness, Delirium
- Common reactions of family members and ways to support the family
- The moment of death and care of the body after death
- Grief and grieving
- Self-care for the care-giver:
- Personal and professional boundaries
- Recognizing the impact of loss on the care-giver
- Recognizing signs of and preventing stress and burnout
1. Display an understanding of the structure and function of the human body and normal changes associated with aging
- Describe the organization of the human body; cells, tissues, and organs
- Describe the structure and functions of the major body systems.
- Discuss the natural changes in each system associated with aging
2. Display a sound understanding of common challenges to health and healing
- Discuss the experience of illness, disability and common challenges to healing
- Discuss the experience of chronic illness and implications for care
- Describe common health challenges related to each body system
x. Sensory challenges
xi. Multi-organ (cancer, AIDS)
- Describe common developmental health challenges
3. Discuss nutrition as it relates to healing
- Discuss nutrition in relation to common health challenges
- Identify components of common special diets
- Identify community resources to support client’s dietary needs
4. Describe ways to organize, administer and evaluate person-centered care and service for clients experiencing common health challenges
- Discuss person-centered/caring approaches appropriate for specific health challenges
- Describe aspects of critical thinking and problem solving that should be utilized when caring for individuals experiencing common health challenges.
5. Demonstrate and understanding of the components of person-centered, end-of life care for clients and families
- Discuss the philosophy and principles of care used in hospice and palliative care settings
- Describe caring and problem solving as these relate to end-of-life care in facilities and in community settings
- Discuss elements of legal/ethical practice in end-of-life care
- Describe common reactions/experiences as people approach death
- Discuss physical, emotional, cognitive and spiritual needs of the dying person and appropriate interventions
- Discuss common reactions of family members and ways to support the family
- Describe processes involved in the care of a body after death
- Discuss the effects of a client’s death on the health care workers involved in the dying process
- Display an understanding of the importance of and ways to provide self-care for the caregiver following a death
Grading System: Percentage
Passing Grade: 75%
Text Books:Textbooks are subject to change. Please contact the bookstore at your local campus for current book lists.